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A) Articles

1.The indefinite article
2.The definite article
3.Cases where no article is used

1.The indefinite article:
-
The indefinite article in English is a/an. It is used:
a) before a singular noun when the latter is countable.
e.g.  a chair
b) before names of professions.
e.g.  a carpenter
c) with few and little
e.g.  a few tables
a little milk

-the form "an" is used before one of the cases mentioned above beginning with a vowel (a, o, i, u when not pronounced (/you/)
e.g. an arm; an uncle  (but not "an university").

2.The definite article:  
-The definite article is
the. It is used before:
a) a noun which has become definite as a result of being mentioned a second time.
e.g. I am driving a car. The car belongs to my friend John.
b) nouns which there is only one or considered as one.
e.g. the sun, the moon, ... (but not the God but God).
c) Superlatives:
e.g. the best, the easiest, the most expensive, …
d) Names of rivers, mountains, seas, etc. and plural nouns of countries:
e.g. the Mississippi, the Djurdjura, the Mediterranean Sea, the Philippines, the United Arab Emirates, ...  

3.Cases where no article is used:
a) before plural nouns used in general terms.
e.g. trees, animals, ...
b) before amenities like: church, market, hospital, school, etc. when they are used for their primary use. 
e.g. I went to hospital. (because I was ill.)
But when they are not used for that, the definite article is used:
I went to
the hospital. (to visit a friend of mine.)
c) before uncountable nouns.
e.g. information, money, ink, water, wood, …
d) before abstract nouns.
e.g. freedom, peace, ...  
e) before names of meals. 
e.g. lunch, dinner, …
f) before names of days of the week and months of the year.
e.g. Tuesday, January, …  
 

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