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Site de grammaire anglaise pour lycéen(ne)s Algérien(ne)s de 3 A.S. et étudiant(e)s d'anglais et d’autres filières et ceux qui y sont intéressé(e)s.
English version of this lesson  Sommaire des leçons de grammaire Recommander Guest Book / Livre d'or Sondage


D)The Reported Speech /  
Le discours rapporté
                   

1) Definition
2) The general changes
3) Tense of the reporting verb and the changes
4)
Reporting questions

1) Definition / Définition:
 - Consider the following sentence:
John said: “I am ill”.
- Considérons la phrase suivante:
John said: “I am ill”.( John dit: "je suis malade."

* This sentence is in the direct speech style because we reproduce the exact words of the speaker. When we want to report what the speaker said indirectly a time after he said it, we use the indirect or report speech style. For the sentence, the result will be:
John said that he was ill.
* Cette phrase au style direct parce qu' on reproduit les mots exacts du parlant. Lorsqu' on veut rapporter ce que le parlant a dit indirectement un temps après qu' il l' a dit, on utilise le style indirect ou le discours rapporté. Pour l' exemple ci-dessus le résultat va être:
John said that he was ill. (John dit qu' il était malade.)

2) The general changes / les transformations génerales:
* The general changes that occur when a speech is reported are:
-The omission of the colon (:).
-The omission of the inverted commas (“...”).
-The introduction of that.
-The change of the persons:
"I " changes into "he" or "she"; "You" changes into "we" or "I"; "We" changes into "they".
-Change in the possessive adjectives:
"my" changes into "his" or "her"; "your" changes into "my" or "our"; "our" changes into "their".
 
2) Les changements généraux:
* Les changement généraux qui s' effectuent quand un discours est rapporté sont:
- L' omission des dux points (:).
- L' omission des guilleemets ( "...").
- L' introduction de that (l' équivalent de "que" en français).
- Le changement de personnes:
"I " (je) devient "he" (il) ou "she" (elle); "You" (vous, tu) devient "we" (nous) ou  "I" (je); "We" (nous) devient "they" (ils ou elles).
- Changement d' adjectifs possessifs:
"my" (mon, ma, mes) devient "his" ou "her" (son, sa, ses); "your" (votre, vos, ton, ta, tes) devient "my" (mon, ma, mes) ou "our" (notre, nos); "our" (notre, nos) devient "their" (leur, leurs).  


3) Tense of the reporting verb and the changes
/
Le temps du verbe rapporteur et les changements:
a)
When the reporting verb ( say; tell; announce; ask; confess; inform; ... ) is in the present simple, present perfect, or future simple tenses, there is no change of tense in the words reported, but the changes are only in the persons and possessives.
a) Lorsque le verbe rapporteur tel que: say (dire); tell (dire, raconter); announce (annoncer); ask (demander); confess (se cofesser); inform (informer); ...

e.g. * He confesses: “I am guilty”.
          He confesses that he is
guilty.
      *  He has told me: : “I went to the beach last week”.
         He has told me that he went to the beach last week.
      * He will tell you: “I have given up drinking”.
         He will tell you that he he has given up drinking.
par exemple: * He confesses: “I am guilty”. (Il se confesse: "je suis coupable". )
                          He confesses that he is guilty.( Il se confesse qu' il est coupable.)
                        * He has told me: : “I went to the beach last week”. (Il m' a  dit: "je suis allé à la plage
                          la semaine passée".)
                          He has told me that . (Il m' a dit qu' il est allé à la plage la semaine passé.
                      
*  He will tell you: “I have given up drinking”. (Il te dira: "J' ai  arrêté de boire".)
                         
He will tell you that he he has given up drinking. (Il te dira  qu' il arrêté de boire.)
                

b) When the reporting verb is in the past simple or past perfect tense, or is a should/would form, the words reported are viewed in a different perspective. The speech is now remote, and seen as relating a sequence of events happening in the past. So, changes of tenses, adverbials of time, adverbial of place, and demonstrators are required accordingly:
b) Lorsque le verbe rapporteur est au past simple ou past perfect, ou est de la forme should / would, les mots rapportés sont vus dans une perspective différente. Le discours est maintenant lointain, et vu comme relatant une séquence d' évènements se déroulant au passé. Donc, des changements se temps, adverbes (ou groupes adverbiaux) de temps, adverbes (ou groupes adverbiaux) de lieu, et adjectifs démonstratifs sont requis par conséquent:   

- Changes in adverbials and demonstrators
/ Changements d' adverbes (ou groupes adverbiaux) et adjectifs démonstratifs:

Direct Speech
Style direct
Reported Speech
Discours rapporté  (ou style indirect) 
today (aujourd' hui) that day (ce jour-là)
yesterday (hier) the previous day (la veille)
tomorrow (demain) the next day; the day after (le lendemain)
now (maintenant) then (ce moment-là)
last week (la semaine passé) the previous week (la semaine d' avant)
next month (le mois prochain) The following month (le mos suivant)
5 years ago (il y a 5 ans) 5 years before (5 ans avant)
here (ici) there (là-bas)
this (ce, cette, cet) that (ce ...-là, cette ...-là, cet ...-là
these (ces) those (ceux)

- Changes of tenses with examples / Changements de temps avec des exemples:

Tense of the Direct Speech
(Temps du style direct)
Example
(Exemple)
The Tense to be changed to in the Reported Speech
(Le temps qu'on le doit changer à au discours rapporté)
Example
(Exemple)
The Present Simple He said: “I practise jogging everyday”
(Il dit: "je pratique du jogging chaque jour") 
The Past Simple He said that he practised jogging everyday.
(Il dit qu' il pratiquait du jogging chaque jour.)
The Present Continuous She told me: “I am reading poetry now.”
(Elle me dit: "Je suis entrain de lire de la poésie maintenant".
Past Continuous She told me that she was reading poetry then.
(Elle me dit qu' elle était entrain de lire de la poésie à ce moment-là. 
The Present Perfect “We have done the work ourselves.” John announced.
("Nous avons  fait le travail nous-mêmes" annonça John.)
Past Perfect John announced that they had done the work themselves.
(John annonça qu' ils avaient  fait le travail eux-mêmes.) 
The Past Simple “I stayed here yestersay.” She confessed.
("Je resta ici hier".  se confessa-t-elle.)
Past Perfect She confessed that she had stayed there the previous day.
(Elle se confessa qu' elle était resté là-bas la veille.)
The Past Continuous “I was watching television.” He told me.
(" J' étais entrain de regarder la télévision" me dit-il.)
Past Perfect Continuous He told me that he had been watching television.
(Il me dit qu'  il avait été entrain de regarder la télévision.)
The Past Perfect “ I had studied English for five years.” He declared.
("J' avais étudié
 l' anglais pendant 5 ans" declara-t-il.)  
Past Perfect He declared that he had studied English for five years.
(Il declara qu' il avait étudié l' anglais pendant 5 ans.)
The Future Simple “ I will help you.” He suggested.
(" Je t' aiderai" proposa-t-il.)
Conditional He suggested that he would help me.
(Il proposa qu' il 
m' aiderait.) 
Conditional 1st  type: (would/should + stem) “I would come to the feast” He replied.
("Je viendrais à la fête" réponda-t-il.)
Conditional 2nd type: (would/should have + past participle

 

He replied that he would have come to the feast.
(Il réponda qu' il serait venu à la fête.)  
can He said: “I can help you”.
(Il dit: "Je peux
 t' aider".)
could He said that he could help me.
(Il dit qu' il pouvait m' aider.)
must “ You must stop smoking” He recommended.
("Vous devez arrêter de fûmer" recommanda-t-il.)
Had to He recommended that I had to stop smoking.
(Il recommanda que je devais arrêter de fûmer.)
Affirmative Imperative He asked me : “Bring me that book.”
(Il me demanda: "apportes-moi ce livre-là".)
 
Infinitive Phrase He aked me to bring him that book.
(Il me demanda de lui apporter ce livre-là.)
Negative Imperative Do not do it” He advised me.
("Ne le fait pas" me conseilla-t-il)
Negative Infinitive Phrase He advised me not to do it.
(Il me conseilla de ne pas le faire.)

4) Reporting questions / Rapporter des questions:
- The word-order of reported questions is the same as a simple statement; there is no inversion as in a simple question.
- L' ordre syntactique des questions rapportées et comme celui d' une phrase simple (statement); il n' y a pas d' inversions comme dans une simple question.  
- In wh questions (introduced by a question-word: who, what, how, when, where, or why) this word (not that) serves as a link between the reporting verb and the reported question.
- Dans les questions dites wh questions (introduites par des interrogatifs comme: who (qui), what (que, quoi), how (comment), when (quand), where (oû), ou why (pourquoi) ) cet intérrogatif  (pas "that") sert comme un lien entre le verbe rapporteur et la question rapportée.
e.g. He asked me: “What is your name?”
 
      He asked me what my name was.
par exemple: 
He asked me: “What is your name?” (Il me demanda: "quel
est ton nom?")
                         He asked me what my name was (Il me demand ce
qu' était mon nom.)    
                                                                       

- In yes or no questions (those which can take yes or no for an answer), whether or if  (not that) is used as link between the reporting verb and the reported question.
- Dans les questions dites yes or no questions (celle à qui on peut répondre par oui ou par non), c' est whether ou if ("si" en français) pas "that" qui est utilisé comme un lien entre le verbe rapporteur et la question rapportée.
e.g. He asked him: “Have you seen my friend?”
      He asked him if (or whether) she had seen his friend.
par exemple: He asked him:“Have you seen my friend?” (Il lui demanda: "as-tu vu mon ami?".)
                        He asked him if (or whether) she had seen his friend. (Il lui demanda s' il avait vu son
                        ami.)

                                                

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